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Design of 16 Order Linear Phase FIR Digital Low Pass Filter Based on FPGA Using Window Function Meth

With the development of microelectronics technology, digital signal processing using field programmable gate array FPGA has developed rapidly. Because FPGA has the characteristics of field programmable and can realize ASIC, it is more and more favored by hardware circuit design engineers. This paper studies the implementation method of FIR digital low-pass filter hardware circuit based on FPGA. The internal circuit structure of the filter is transparent, the volume is reduced and the working efficiency is improved.

The method of designing linear phase FIR filter by window function method

Frequency response H (EJ) of any digital filter All Its Fourier series expansion is:

Fourier coefficient h (n) is actually the impulse response of digital filter. One possible way to obtain finite impulse response digital filter is to intercept the infinite series of equation (1) into finite series to approximate it, and the well-known Gibbs phenomenon makes the direct interception method unsatisfactory.

The window function method uses the finite weighted sequence w (n) called window function to modify the Fourier coefficient of formal (2) to obtain the required finite impulse response sequence HD (n), namely:

W (n) is a finite length sequence. When n > n-1 and N Here, we only take the low-pass filter when the impulse response is symmetrical, that is, H (n) = H (n-1-n) (n = 0, 1, 2,..., n-1) as an example. The frequency response function H (EJ) of the low-pass filter As shown in equation (4).

Among them, Is the frequency normalized to the sampling frequency, C is the normalized cut-off frequency.

The impulse response H (n) corresponding to equation (4) is obtained by using the inverse Fourier transform formula, as shown in equation (5).

Hanning window is selected as the window function, and the function is shown in equation (6).

2 hardware circuit design of sixteenth order FIR low-pass digital filter

The following takes a sixteenth order FIR low-pass filter as an example to illustrate the design method and process of hardware circuit.

2.1 design index and parameter extraction

2.1.1 design index

Cut off frequency: 37.5khz

Type: low pass input data width: 8 bits

Order: 16 order output data width: 16 bits

2.1.2 parameter extraction

The frequency response function and Hanning window function of the low-pass filter introduced above are used for design. The calculated characteristic parameters of the linear phase 16th order FIR digital low-pass filter meeting the design index are as follows:

2.2 unit circuit design

FIR low-pass digital filter circuit is divided into data bit expansion, parallel serial converter, shift register bank, pre addition unit, intermediate processing unit, post-processing unit and control unit. Its composition block diagram is shown in Figure 1.

2.2.1 data bit extension

The input of FIR digital filter designed here is 8 bits wide. In order to prevent overflow and ensure the normal operation of the circuit, the symbol bit expansion method is adopted. After symbol bit expansion, the total input data width is 9 bits.

2.2.2 parallel / serial converter

The parallel / serial converter is composed of 9 2-out-of-1 selectors and 9 d flip flops. Its structure is very simple. Its circuit structure will not be described here. Its working process is: the parallel / serial converter periodically collects 8-bit sample data at the sampling rate and outputs 1-bit data stream to the shift register of the later stage.

2.2.3 shift register group

The register group mainly completes the shift function.

2.2.4 front adding unit

The main function of the preamble unit is to pre add the 1-bit serial data stream output by the shift register. It is composed of a 1-bit serial adder. XC4000 series chips have the following two characteristics:

(1) Internal basic unit CLB (configurable logic module) It includes three function generators marked with F, G and h respectively. Each of the two first level function generators F and G can realize any function with 4 inputs. At the same time, they can also be combined with the H function generator to generate any function with 5 inputs. In addition, CLB also has the feature that the delay of CLB internal connection is less than that of external connection.

(2) XC4000 series provides CArray logic to accelerate the carry channel of adders and counters. Using fast carry logic, adders and counters, it has extremely fast working speed when occupying the minimum number of CLBs. Moreover, the carry logic can be flexibly configured to realize counters and subtracters of any length.

Therefore, from the aspects of improving chip utilization, wiring rate and reducing circuit delay, we must make full use of the characteristics of XC4000 series chips to make a special design for the 1-bit full adder in the circuit suitable for the characteristics of FPGA. The circuit in Figure 2 is the optimized 1-bit full adder circuit including fast carry logic adopted in this paper, in which fmap is function mapping, and specific circuits can be mapped To F, g or H function generator of CLB; CY4 is fast carry logic macro unit.

2.2.5 intermediate processing unit

In FIR digital filter, the intermediate processing unit mainly realizes the functions of multiplication and accumulation of 1-bit serial output data from the pre adding unit. Here, the distributed algorithm based on ROM look-up table method is used to design the circuit of the intermediate processing unit.

As mentioned earlier, this paper only considers the case that the impulse response is symmetrical, that is, the coefficients of the filter are symmetrical, so the number of independent coefficients should be equal to the order of 1 / 2. For the FIR filter of order 16, the number of independent coefficients is 8. These 8 independent coefficients are stored in 2 ROM based look-up tables according to the combinations shown in Table 1.

2.2.6 post processing unit

The main function of the post-processing unit is to round the data and get the required data from the data stream. A 16 bit adder is required to complete the rounding function, and a 16 bit parallel D trigger is required to get the data.

2.2.7 control unit

The control unit is mainly composed of counter and D flip-flop. Its control of the circuit mainly includes: global reset before the circuit starts to work, making work preparations; controlling the work of the input unit; providing some signals necessary for the normal work of the intermediate processing unit; and providing the output synchronization signal (outsyn) when the final output result is provided.

2.3 circuit principle and function simulation

The hardware circuit of the 16th order FIR low-pass digital filter designed by xc4005epc84 of Xilinx company is adopted, and the circuit schematic diagram of the top layer is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 is the upper layer diagram of FIR digital filter. See Table 2 and table 3 for input and output pins and hardware resource occupation respectively.

In order to check whether the designed circuit can work continuously and correctly, 16 bit data (decimal system) are continuously input, which are 100101102103104105106107, - 101, - 102, - 103, - 104, - 105, - 106, - 107. Hardware simulation results of FIR digital filter (the first 16 outputs) As shown in Table 4, the software calculation results obtained by the program written according to literature [4] are also listed in Table 4.

From the above data, it can be seen that compared with the hardware simulation results, the absolute value of the error is 1, so it can be considered that the hardware circuit of the filter works correctly.

In addition, in order to verify whether the filter can work correctly when the edge value is input, the edge value test is also carried out. When the input data is 8 bits, the two edge values are 127 and - 128 respectively, corresponding to hexadecimal 7F and 80. Using these two groups of data as input, the output is also compared with the software results, which can prove that the circuit can also work correctly at this time.

When the 16th order linear phase FIR digital low-pass filter designed in this paper is realized by xc4005epc84-2 chip, the system clock frequency of data processing is 36MHz, the sampling rate is 4MHz, and the maximum error between the calculation result and the software calculation result is 1. In practical use, the FIR filter can be easily modified according to different accuracy requirements to meet different index requirements In addition, based on the low-pass filter designed in this paper, the high pass or band-pass filter can be obtained by simply reorganizing the filter characteristic parameters. At the same time, the programmable characteristics of FPGA device can easily improve the circuit and further improve the circuit performance.

Design of 16 Order Linear Phase FIR Digital Low Pass Filter Based on FPGA Using Window Function Meth 1

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So you don't have the limited options by just using scratchpad and line select keys, but you can graphically interact with the items on the screen by using the cursor.A flight management system (FMS) is a fundamental component of a modern airliner's avionics. An FMS is a specialized computer system that automates a wide variety of in-flight tasks, reducing the workload on the flight crew to the point that modern civilian aircraft no longer carry flight engineers or navigators. A primary function is in-flight management of the flight plan. Using various sensors (such as GPS and INS often backed up by radio navigation) to determine the aircraft's position, the FMS can guide the aircraft along the flight plan. From the cockpit, the FMS is normally controlled through a Control Display Unit (CDU) which incorporates a small screen and keyboard or touchscreen. The FMS sends the flight plan for display to the Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), Navigation Display (ND), or Multifunction Display (MFD).Wikipedia - Flight Management System------How to test which button is stuckIn the first instance, maybe give the keyboard a damn good blow with a can of compressed air, in case there is debris under the keys. Biscuits are GREAT for screwing up keyboards.Failing that, I would give Dell technical support a call and explain your problem as it is still under warranty. It would save you some time if you ran through the diagnostics (F12 on boot up and then select the diagnostic option) before calling. It might save them getting you to do it while on the phone.(sorry if this does not apply to you-) Over here in the UK, if you tell them that you're comfortable changing the keyboard and ask nicely, they will just send the part and let you do it yourself. Not sure whether this will work in your neck of the woods but worth a go nevertheless, nothing to lose right?Trying to fix it yourself might end in a completely broken key. If you are lucky enough to remove the key without snapping the plastic, the scissor mechanism is a pain the backside to put back together again------How to change keyboard layout by USB dongle?There are several parts to this question.1) Can you make some kind of hardware that permutes keys from an USB keyboard as if it were a customized Dvorak keyboard?Yes, you can. You can use any embedded computer that has both an USB host and a USB client port. However, you will have to write the software for that yourself: It's very unlikely that ready-made software for that exists. The software will have to translate HID events from the physical keyboards to the HID events corresponding to the Dvorak layout, but that is not very difficult.2) Will you be allowed with your own private keyboard or your own piece of hardware that you can put between an existing USB keyboard and a PC in a high security place?If the people who are responsible for security are not completely stupid, they will allow no extra hardware at all - no keyboards you carry with you, no commercial "dongles", no custom self-made "dongles". And you'll get on the watch list for even asking.So if you are asking because you need a Dvorak layout in such a place, this is not a viable solution------How windows boots up in hibernate mode using keyboard?The Wikipedia article was imprecise, and I already fixed that. It's true that hibernation ends up with exactly the same device power state as when regular shutdown is applied. But while that state is called a "shut down", in modern computers some basic electronic modules still function. It's the motherboard that decides what to do, once it gets in that state - according to it's construction and features designed by manufacturer.These features are eg. powering up by WakeOnLAN, keyboard shortcut, mouse move or time-preset launch. Or even pressing the front power button, which is not a real circuit breaker like in "the old times", but just an electronic, low-power "sensor" that, when pressed, allows that inner electronic module to know you want to power the rest of modules on.To completely shut the computer (motherboard) down, you still have to completely unplug it's power sources or, in case of some desktop PC-s, use the power switch on the PSU.Mind though, that RAM is truly powered down when in hibernation state. It's content gets stored on the hard drive right before shutdown and then gets recovered when you start computer again.
What the Best Cheapest Computer Keyboard?
What the Best Cheapest Computer Keyboard?
What the best cheapest computer keyboard?If you go down to a place like best buy, or order online at a place like newegg you should be able to find basic, wired keyboard for under 15-20 dollars. I found a "slightly ergonomic" microsoft keyboard for 15 bucks or so. Good Luck -Joe------How do you clean out a computer keyboard?If it is a regular type key board then actually you must not be bothered about the dust as it does not affect the internal parts of the key board and the performance at last, but if you are concerned that it does not look good then there is a zero cost solution... You can surely pick out every key of your computer, just make sure to do it one by one or two or three at a time to remember there exact place. ,It is a time taking and energy consuming task but effective for a sticky dust difficult for a vaccum cleaner or other things. You can use vaccum cleaner or soft brush meant for keyboard like things also. Have fun.------Why is my computer keyboard not working?None of the prongs are bent or broken...guessing this is a PS2 keyboard. The keyboard itself could be bad, could have a loose or broken connection from the PS2 connector to anywhere inside the keyboard. Or the port on the computer has gone bad. You can get a PS2 keyboard for about $20.00 these days, i would try connecting a different keyboard and see if it works or buy a USB keyboard in case the PS2 connection is messed up. If a friend has a spare keyboard, i would try borrowing it and see if that works. As for what would cause this to happen, could be age on the keyboard as in wear and tear mostly. It just gets worn out after a while or depends on how good the keyboard was made, a good keyboard lasted me years. The only reason i replaced my last keyboard is because the movers that moved my stuff, stole the box that had my wireless keyboard and mouse in.------On your computer keyboard, what is the SysRq key for?a special key to directly invoke low-level operating system functions with no possibility of conflicting with any existing software. It was brought by IBM, you can take a look at the story on wikipedia------What is the best way to clean my computer keyboard?If you do not have canned air, use hair dryer (in cold air mode) using the air concentrator cone. --- Kasey C, PC guru since Apple II days When there's a will, I want to be in it.------do you know a good silent or quiet computer keyboard?logitech sells one or two. The brand name Razor sells one too. Its an intense gaming one comes in black. Good luck------Which computer keyboard would you buy... EASY 10 POINTS...?First, all your links are broken. I personally would just buy a cheap $10-$20 keyboard, but I know some people are fanatical about having a great keyboard. I mean, keyboards vary in terms of what kind of extra function keys they have, how they feel when typing, the amount of noise they make, etc, so to me, keyboard choice is more a matter of preference------Poll: When did you learn to type on the computer keyboard?When I was 11 or 12------how do I clean my computer keyboard?can of compressed air to blow crap out, a damp cloth to wipe it over and a dry lint free cloth for drying it down. Unplug it first.------can you hook a computer keyboard to a cell phone?Uhm, great question. 4 possabilitys. Your best bet. If you can connect your phone to the keyboard using USB. Some phone wall chargers connect to a USB port then back to your phone. Your keyboard would have to have a USB port. Next. Having a converter, that makes a USB port from a different port on your keyboard. Another would be bluetooth. But I do not know how that would work out with the information from the keyboard to transfer to the phone. With a lab top. Connect your phone to the lab top using the USB from your charger. I hope one or more of these possabilitys work. Good luck.
Tea Was Spilled on My Laptop, now Keyboard Won't Work...?
Tea Was Spilled on My Laptop, now Keyboard Won't Work...?
Tea was spilled on my laptop, now keyboard won't work...?replace the key pad. You can probably get one on line for about $50. I had to replace my wife's because she spilled a glass of Iced tea on it.It's not the Tea it's the Sugar in the tea recrystallizing. And unfortunately spilled tea IS NOT an warranty repair. Its pretty easy to change the keyboard. You may also want to have a bottle of rubbing alcohol and some Lint free cloths in case the area under the keypad is all sticky. Put the Alcohol on the cloth then wipe the mess up.------Spilled Coke on laptop keyboard. Help!?Get someone to unmount the keyboard and spray it down a bit with water. Coke will get sticky and attract ants and then you will experience a different type of computer bug. Just use a spare USB keyboard and let the other one dry. I screwed up a keyboard once but it worked out fine (even though I got kinda PO would and threw it down the stairs after....)------I dusted my desktop keyboard and now I have no volume.?I did not use compressed air or a feather duster, rather, a cut up tee. The board was very dusty and while attempting to clean it I swiped multiple keys at once and then had no volume. I did not press the volume/mute buttons. I've tried everything I can think of, but to no avail. Is there a combination of keys to press to cause this? Or is the keyboard dying? Thanks------how to turn off my pc without a mouse and keyboard?The mouse and the keyboard are your only input devices. Cut the power off. It wo not damage the computer if you are not doing it very often. Besides, it's just like getting an unexpected power interruption on some occasions.------Wireless mouse and keyboard won't work together... can you help?we've had some fulfillment with this, interior the college i paintings. the instructor has a fixed (under pressure out) keyboard and mouse, at their Whiteboard gadget, yet additionally has a mixed prompt keyboard and trackball that they use whilst at different end of the room. We used a splitter to combine the under pressure out keyboard (Ps2), and the prompt keyboard & trackball (Ps2) so the two plugged into the comparable port (keyboard). The trackball (prompt) section plugged into the Ps2 mouse port. Then a typical usb mouse grew to become into plugged in to the pc. whilst the splitter detected the keyboard getting used variety the two source, it types to the exhibit. The mouse merely seems to handle which one is getting used itself------Which keyboard would be better for a beginner?Well those are pretty different keyboards. The YPT-220 is much better. Its really funny, before I even opened up the question and saw your question. I thought of the YPT330 or the Yamaha DGX230. I have a 230 and love it. Best of luck, you really can not go wrong anymore out there. they are all fine now a days. its mostly about preference. Are you going to be playing it through speakers or not? (This will determine if you want nice speakers on the keyboard itself) do you want light up keys. do you want the ability to connect to an amp or computer. etc. (it can get complicated but mostly any keyboard out there will work for beginners. Hope this helps.------Keyboard percussion instrumentA keyboard percussion instrument, also known as mallet percussion, is a chromatic melodic percussion instrument arranged in a similar pattern to a piano keyboard and played with hands or percussion mallets. Keyboard instruments for children, such as ones used in the Orff Schulwerk, may be diatonic or pentatonic. Despite the name, keyboard instruments such as the celesta and keyboard glockenspiel are not considered keyboard percussion, owing to the different skills required to play them. These instruments are percussion instruments in most senses but are part of the keyboard section rather than the percussion section of an orchestra. Keyboard percussion instruments do not possess keyboards as such, but instead follow the arrangement of the keyboard. Keyboard percussion instruments include marimba, xylophone, vibraphone, glockenspiel, and tubular bells.How can I get the smell out of my keyboard bag?First unplug it then pop out all the keys and clean it with a clorox wipe or something like that, then clean each individual key and put them back in the keyboard. Perhaps you should cover your keyboard and anything else so this does not happen again. I spilled soda on mine once and amazingly it still worked. Good luck.
How Do You Make This Symbol on the Keyboard?
How Do You Make This Symbol on the Keyboard?
How do you make this symbol on the keyboard?you can make it with a white pen, or black, depending on the color of your keyboard. or you can print it out and glue it on your keyboard. there are many other ways. or do you mean make this symbol "from" the keyboard.------Disable Keyboard & Mouse input on unix (under X)I wrote this (in .zshrc, but should work in .bashrc as well) to do this, with the help of answers above. To do the corresponding with the keyboard, change the parameter in grep Mouse------How do they print the letters on a keyboard?Chances are they probably use teh Screenprinting tecnique to do it over a large piece of plastic, in wich they eventually cut our the keys to the keyboard------How to use two applications simultaneously, using mouse on one and keyboard on another?I do not think you can do this. I simulated this with Virtual Machines. I started Notepad in my host, left my mouse in this Kali Window, then used the keyboard to bring up the Host Notepad window. All worked to that point, but then the mouse clearly came with me to Notepad.VMware simulates this because there are two different machines. But it is done with one single monitor and the mouse still goes with the keyboard. You can see this happen on screen.So I really do not think this will work------How do I turn the power off of my Logitech LX710 Keyboard?I do not believe Logitech includes power buttons on their keyboard - mainly because there is not much power running through it at all times whereas there's a power switch on the mouse because the laser sensor is constantly on and drains much of the power. In other words, you would have to remove the batteries to turn the power off on the keyboard, but in reality it's not necessary because it does not draw much power on standby.------Keyboard matrix circuitA keyboard matrix circuit is a design used in most electronic musical keyboards and computer keyboards in which the key switches are connected by a grid of wires, similar to a diode matrix. For example, 16 wires arranged in 8 rows and 8 columns can connect 64 keys-sufficient for a full five octaves of range (61 notes). By scanning these crossings, a keyboard controller can determine which keys are currently pressed. .------In china how do they type chinese with computers when there are english letters on the keyboard?Well, I have seen and used a Japanese keyboard, and I am pretty sure Chinese and Japanese use the same system. And the keyboard I used looked almost exactly like the photo given by that earlier user------Spilled water on my laptops keyboard. More info below.?It is likely there is water still inside that is interfering with the contacts of the keyboard. (Provided something else did not go bad.) Unless you can hook up an external keyboard, I recommend that you take it to a repair shop that can open it up and remove any residual moisture------Jank keyboardThe Jank keyboard is a musical keyboard layout for a piano designed by Paul von Jank, a Hungarian pianist and engineer, in 1882. It was designed to overcome two limitations on the traditional piano keyboard: the large-scale geometry of the keys (stretching beyond a ninth, or even an octave, can be difficult or impossible for pianists with small hands), and the fact that each scale has to be fingered differently. Instead of a single row, the Jank keyboard has an array of keys consisting of two interleaved manuals with three touch-points for every key lever, making six rows of keys. Each vertical column of three keys is a semitone away from the neighboring ones, which are in the alternate rows. Thus within each row the interval from one note to the next is a whole step. This key layout results in each chord and scale having the same shape on the keyboard with the same fingerings regardless of key, so there is no change in geometry when transposing music. Furthermore, the use of multiple rows allows the pianist to more naturally follow the contour of their hand and accounts for the different lengths of the fingers. The configuration retains the colouring of traditional keyboards (white naturals, black sharps and flats) for pedagogical purposes. For an 88-note (full size) keyboard, there would be 264 keys in total, with each note playable by three keys in vertical alignment. In the picture above, the white keys have been coloured to show how the keys are interconnected. Instead of 123 cm (48 in) the keyboard is only 89 cm (35 in) wide, and the smaller key size allows reaching wider intervals. The Jank Keyboard caused a stir at the time of its invention, in large part due to its unique look and the intelligent design behind the keyboard. American piano manufacturer Decker Brothers put the keyboard into production around 1891, and the Paul de Janko Conservatory of Music was established in New York around the same time. There was even a manual written by W. Bradley Keeler called How to Play the New Keyboard. Despite all this, the Jank keyboard never achieved wide popularity. Music educators were not convinced that the benefits of the new keyboard were enough to challenge the traditional keyboard. Both reasons left keyboard instrument manufacturers afraid to invest in a redesigned keyboard which promised to have only marginal commercial success. Many embodiments of this keyboard have appeared since its conception. Jank himself (in German patent 25852, dated 14 January 1884) originally chose a key shape which resembled the slim, black keys on the familiar piano keyboard. A year later (in German patent 32138, dated 1 July 1885) the keys became wider and shorter. Other inventors have filed patents for keyboards which are substantially similar to his design, differing most often in key shape or instrument to which those keyboards are affixed. (For example: John Trotter English Patent 3404, 4 March 1811, William A. B. Lunn devised in 1843 under the name of Arthur Wallbridge a sequential keyboard with two parallel rows of keys, each in whole tones. Miguel Theodore de Folly, 1845,Useful Registered Design Number 448 for a geometrical keyboard for the pianoforte, Gould and Marsh , Edgar , Cramer , McChesney , Stewart , Adams , Nordb , Barnett , Reuther , and Firestone .) The most recent patents are for MIDI compatible instruments.
What's the Best Way to Clean Out the Keyboard of My Laptop?
What's the Best Way to Clean Out the Keyboard of My Laptop?
What's the best way to clean out the keyboard of my laptop?If you run a vacuum cleaner over the keyboard you wo not damage the processor but you will damage the keyboard the best way to clean it is to go down to you local computer shop they should sell cans of compressed air for cleaning dust and the like and in you case crumbs out of a computer the pressure is not too high so it wo not do any damage------When the Keyboard Breaks: Live in ChicagoWhen the Keyboard Breaks is a live album by progressive metal supergroup Liquid Trio Experiment. The album was recorded during a live show of Liquid Tension Experiment in Chicago, Illinois. The album came about when, during the track "Universal Mind", Jordan Rudess' Roland Fantom-G8 keyboard started playing half-step higher notes on every fourth key: So I am playing along, everything's fine, but all of a sudden I started hearing these half-steps. It was as if I was playing in C but somebody else was playing in C-sharp. I was looking at John Petrucci, like, 'What the hell are you doing?' But then I saw him stop for a second, and I looked down at my hands and thought, 'What is that?' I realized that every time I played a C, the keyboard would also play a C-sharp; every time I played a G, it played a G-sharp, and so on. It was playing everything in the worst possible dissonant way.Following the song, he went off stage to figure out a solution, since he did not have his usual technician nor a substitute keyboard. In the meantime, the other three musicians decided to improvise until Jordan was ready to come back. Jordan had to stay on the phone with Roland in Japan for at least 20 minutes trying to figure out what was wrong. The other three just continued to jam with drummer Mike Portnoy giving updates every now and then (the determining point for the track splices). In the end, Rudess took John Petrucci's guitar and started jamming, then Petrucci took the bass, since Tony Levin was playing the Chapman Stick. When that jam was over, Portnoy ended up taking Levin's bass and Charlie Benante ended up playing drums. The keyboard was never fixed that night. The production of the album was not official, as it was taken from a live stereo recording from the mix off stage. Thus there was no way for it to be properly mixed so everything is how the audience heard it. The name of the album alludes to the track "When the Water Breaks" from Liquid Tension Experiment 2.------Voice control and keyboard shortcutsSpeech recognition usually refers to software that attempts to distinguish thousands of words in a human language. Voice control may refer to software used for sending operational commands to a computer or appliance. Voice control typically requires a much smaller vocabulary and thus is much easier to implement. Simple software combined with keyboard shortcuts, have the earliest potential for practically accurate voice control in Linux.------Logitech G110 keyboard randomly stops working while playing games?Check if you plugged the keyboard in an USB 3.0 port by accident. Those Logitech keyboards with a display act funny when in an USB 3.0 port. I had the issue with both my G19 and a G510 keyboard. If in a normal USB 2.0 port, it could be an issue with the Logitech software. They did away with their SetPoint software for having constant issues and their gaming keyboard software is not fully optimized either. Check for an update to see if that would solve the problem.------What does the " symbol mean in a keyboard piece when attached to a note?Check this out.Thumbing is the act of playing with one or both thumbs on the keyboard below the keyboard on which the rest of fingers are playing. This technique was developed in the late 19th century, and fell out of use after 1930. While at first an organist not used to this technique will only be able to use it to play isolated sustained pitches, organists accustomed to this technique are capable of playing moving lines, although the speed possible is less than that of using all five fingers. A composer who wants to use this technique would be wise to spend some time at an organ console to find out what is physically possible as far as the reach of a hand. Failing that, a composer should refer to a piano keyboard to verify that the requested hand positions are comfortably possible. When notating a passage using this technique, one should place the notes to be thumbed on a separate staff between the "right hand" and "left hand" staves. One should also mark the notes to be thumbed with a "" symbol.
Are Online Exam Proctoring Services Efficient and Trustworthy?
Are Online Exam Proctoring Services Efficient and Trustworthy?
According to an article of the German news site "Spiegel online": short summary of the article in English:There was a test exam that was supervised externally using the students smart phone and computer. The student used his own computer where he had to install a special software. After some technical trouble, the connection to the proctor had been established. The student had to identify showing his passport, he had to present the room to the proctor via his mobile phone camera. He ensured that there are no illegal tools (additional books etc.) or other persons in the room.The mobile phone was then set up to show the student as well as his computer and keyboard. The tool on the computer enabled access of the proctor to everything that is shown. Then the test started and the proctor appeared to continuously observe him. However, the student tried cheating and was VERY successful by doing so. The student was able to read from an undetected cheat-sheet that was pinned to the wall in some distance.The student managed to open some book and to read in his notes, despite this was not allowed. Finally he even stood up and walked around in the room. The proctor did not react. All this cheating remained undetected. The proctoring service has some statistics that mentions 4000 detected cheating attempts in more than 63000 online exams. The article finally raises the question how many more undetected ones took place. From my personal experience in IT security: A computer system (and especially a room) that is under the student control should never be used for such an exam since its security cannot be guaranteed.Clone the monitor signal, have a secial kernel driver in lace, have the exam running in a virtual machine, ..., there are many ideas. Some might work, some won't. It is a similarly difficult task as reventing cheating in online games: A lot of effort goes in ut you NEVER get rid of cheaters. As long as there is some motivation (there definitively is for university exams!), you will find eole heling you cheat. Related QuestionsHow to Modify Android Boot Sequence in Order to Boot From an SD CardI don't really know of a standard way of ooting from an SD card, how easy it is or isn't deends mostly on what Android device you are using:For examle if you have a Nexus device you can just download MultiROM from the Play store and you're good to go. It's never normally that simle; I currently am trying to get my Mediatek MT6575 ased device to oot from SD card as the internal eMMC memory is dead, and have not managed it yet, so I guess right now it's 'ricked'.What I'm trying to say here is that there is no ste-y-ste guide that will work with all devices as there large range of devices, each with different artition layouts, kernels, etc. I'll rovide some examles on how to oot from SD for a few different devices, and hoefully you'll e ale to see whats involved, also if you say what device you have I may have come across a working method for that device. Boot Android from SdCard wiki - This is on a site for 'sunxi' android talets, ut the info is helful as it contains info on editing the recovery and oot artitions, even if the SD card images will only work on sunxi talets.Use SD instead of eMMC on GS3 - Gives step by step on how to partitions the SD card and editing boot.img. I've tried this method on my MT6575 but just changing info on the fstab wasn't enough, it was still trying to boot from eMMC for my device but if you have a GS3 this is ideal.Multiboot for MediaTek devices - How to have 1 rom on internal eMMC and a 2nd rom on the SD card. Gives a rough step by step, may work if you have a mediatek device. Convert ROM to boot from SD card - Written with a Nokia X2 in mind, but I'm going thru this method right now, mounts both system partitions at once, mount point for SD system partition is /system-extThat's all I have for now, if you manage to boot from SD could you please post a comment saying what method you used and what device you used, thanks. :).------Is there any difference between wipe and wipe down?The use of down implies a physical activity, while omitting it implies a result or activity that's somewhat removed from the physical (deleting something). I am going to wipe the computer's memory. I am going to wipe down the computer's memory.In this example, it doesn't make any sense to use wipe down with computer memory, because that's not something that can be physically touched. I am going to wipe the car. I am going to wipe down the car.Here, I would have no idea what wiping a car isbecause you can't delete cars. On the other hand, wiping down a car generally means applying a cloth to remove dirt or water.(Note that we often omit prepositions in speech. if somebody actually said wipe the car, I would understand from context that they meant wipe down the car. As such, the expression without down is not actually wrong in regular discoursebut it wouldn't be quite as natural, and I'm trying to show the literal difference between the two.)To be more specific, compare the following situations.Sitting at a computer keyboard and typing commands: I am going to wipe the motherboard.  I am going to wipe down the motherboard.Holding a motherboard and cloth in your hand: I am going to wipe the motherboard.  I am going to wipe down the motherboard.The object in the question appears to be a blackboard, on which there is writing. This is a particular instance where the two different senses of wipe can be applied to the same thing.It can accept wipe in the sense of removing information. It can also accept wipe down in the sense of cleaning. I am going to wipe the board, so write down what I have written. I am going to remove (delete) the information from the blackboard. I am going to wipe down the board, so write down what I have written. I am going to clean the chalk off of the whiteboard.So, both are fine. Which you use is based on the specific sense you are trying to convey. Are you talking about the information represented by the blackboard or are you talking about the physical chalk marks? (Note that the final result is mostly the same, with the one sense impacting the other.)------Are ergonomic keyboards better for your health?Yes, there are many documented advantages.Copied from here and then adapted:...the adjustable keyboard was more comfortable...in comparison with the conventional keyboard.Tittiranonda, Rempel, et al. (1999) Workplace use of an adjustable keyboard: adjustment preferences and effect on wrist posture...split keyboards place the wrist closer to a neutral posture in the radial/ulnar plane substantially reducing one occupational risk factor... ulnar deviation of the wrist.Marklin, et al. (1999) Wrist and forearm posture from typing on split and vertically inclined computer keyboardsThere is increasing evidence that alternative geometry keyboards may prevent or reduce arm pain or disorders, and presumably the mechanism is by reducing awkward arm postures.Rempel, Barr, et al. (2007) The effect of six keyboard designs on wrist and forearm posturesAlternate keyboard designs can significantly affect tendon travel and may address reduced repetitiveness in typing by reducing the amount of tendon travel.Nelson, Treaster, et al. (2000) Finger motion, wrist motion and tendon travel as a function of keyboard angles...the tested split keyboard configurations are beneficial in promoting a neutral wrist position, which theoretically would decrease exposure to WMSDs such as tenosynovitis in the wrist and carpal tunnel syndrome.Marklin, Simoneau (2001) Effect of setup configurations of split computer keyboards on wrist angle...study results identified a reduction of symptoms, an improvement in functional status, preference for and increased satisfaction with the alternative keyboards, and maintenance of typing speed and accuracy for both groups.Ripat, Scatliff, et al. (2006) The effect of alternate style keyboards on severity of symptoms and functional status of individuals with work related upper extremity disorders....split keyboards with a slant open angle of 10 degrees to 12.5 degrees...are effective in placing the wrist in near neutral ulnar/radial deviation when typing...and tilting the keyboard halves 20 to 30 degrees is effective in reducing forearm pronation to approximately 45 degrees.Design features of alternative computer keyboards: a review of experimental data.Analyses of...six studies indicated that the Adjustable Open-tented keyboard had a large effect on pronation and ulnar deviation...The effect of three alternative keyboard designs on forearm pronation, wrist extension, and ulnar deviation: a meta-analysisNote that there are also advantages in using a soft-touch keyboard and a keyboard without a keypad.------ASUS EeePC FnF2 ruins wireless until restartI have an Asus EeePC myself too, the 1005PE, but im using Lucid 10.04 instead. Ive bought it soon after Lucid was released, and decided to stick with an LTS release. After all, netbooks have limited hardware, and i depend on it on a daily basis, for work and college, so bleeding edge is not needed, stability and long term support comes first.At least in my particular combination, the FnF2 key works perfectly. I can (and i do) switch wireless on and off several times a day. Sometimes I have problems turning bluetooth on and off, requiring restart, but since Eee900 has no bluetooth, it shouldnt worry you.Also, I didnt have to install any driver. The ones out-of-the-box recognized my harware, from touchpad to wifi and even bluetooth. So, my suggestions are:Why not try Lucid 10.04? Its LTS, so it will be supported for 3 years instead of 18 months.If you dont use Maverick's Unity, youre already missing the biggest change in that release. So Lucid will look very similat to what youre used to.Power consumption in Lucid is smaller than Maverick. For a Netbook, battery life is crucial.Ive downloaded and installed Jupiter. Not for the Fn keys, but for power management. I strongly recommend it. It really improved my battery life from 8 to 12 hours. HUGE improvement. Check out my answer on a similar question for some info about Jupiter. And yes, it also improved Fn control by enabling OSD Notifications for every Fn key, and it does have independent bluetooth and wireless enable, something my Fn keys do not.So, why not try it? Lucid 10.04 Jupiter may be your solution for the FnF2. Even if they dont, you wont lose much compared to your current setup (Maverick minus Unity is almost the same as Lucid), and you will get some side-benefits as well, battery life and LTS support to name a few.You dont need to touch your HDD to try it... use a Live Session to see if FnF2 keys work. You can even install Jupiter in a Live Session. Or repartition your HDD to have them both installed side-by side until you feel safe about it
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