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List of Keyboard and Lute Compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach

List of keyboard and lute compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach

List of Keyboard and Lute Compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach 1

Keyboard and Lute Works is the topic of the fifth series of the New Bach Edition. Keyboard Works (Klavierwerke) by Johann Sebastian Bach traditionally refers to the Nos. 772 to 994, Chapter 8 in the BWV catalogue, listing compositions for a solo keyboard instrument like the harpsichord or the clavichord. Despite the fact that organ is also a keyboard instrument, and that in Bach's time the distinction was not always made whether a keyboard composition was for organ or another keyboard instrument, Wolfgang Schmieder ranged organ compositions in a separate section of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (Nos. 525-771). Also other compositions for keyboard, like compositions for lute-harpsichord and fortepiano were listed outside the "Klavierwerke" range by Schmieder. Lute works are in the range 995-1000, Chapter 9 in the BWV catalogue. Bach was a prodigious talent at the keyboard, well known during his lifetime for both his technical and improvisational abilities.

Many of Bach's keyboard works started out as improvisations. Bach wrote widely for the harpsichord, producing numerous inventions, suites, fugues, partitas, overtures, as well as keyboard arrangements of concerto music by his contemporaries. The fortepiano is an instrument Bach would have encountered once, by the end of his life when it was recently invented, while visiting his son in Potsdam. The visit resulted in Das Musikalische Opfer, parts of which may have been intended for the new instrument. Several of Bach's works for keyboard were published in print in his own lifetime.

Four such publications were given the name Clavier-bung (Keyboard Practice) by the composer. Bach was not the first to use that name, for example Bach's Leipzig predecessor Johann Kuhnau had used it for two volumes published in the late 17th century. The first volume, Bach's Opus 1, was published in 1731, while the last was published a decade later. The first, second and last volume contain music written for harpsichord, while the third was written for the organ, only four duets contained in that volume ending up in the BWV 772-994 range. The Well-Tempered Clavier, a collection of forty-eight Preludes and Fugues, was not printed until half a century after Bach's death, although it had circulated in manuscript form before that.

Before the extensive rediscovery of his works in the nineteenth century, Bach was known almost exclusively through his music for the keyboard, in particular his highly influential Well-Tempered Clavier, which were regularly assigned as part of musicians' training. Composers and performers such as Ludwig van Beethoven and Camille Saint-Sans first showed off their skills as child prodigies playing the entire cycle of Bach's forty-eight Preludes and Fugues. Modern composers have continued to draw inspiration from Bach's keyboard output. Dmitri Shostakovich, for example, wrote his own set of Preludes and Fugues after the Bach model. Jazz musicians and composers, in particular, have been drawn to the contrapuntal style, harmonic expansion and rhythmic expression of Bach's compositions, especially the works for keyboard.

List of Keyboard and Lute Compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach 2

The first section below lists all compositions in the BWV 772-994 range, then follows a section listing other compositions for keyboard instruments, excluding the organ. After the composer's death most of his keyboard compositions, and many others, are, or were, often performed on the piano, played either directly from a score for the instruments as the composer knew them, or from a score that was a transcription for piano. The latter is sometimes needed even for harpsichord scores while for instance a composition intended for a two-manual harpsichord (like the Goldberg Variations) can present difficulties for the crossing of hands when performed on a single-keyboard instrument like the piano. Some of the transposers/arrangers of Bach's work added their own inspiration, like Busoni in his arrangement and expansion of Bach's Chromatische Fantasie und Fuge, BWV 903. The fourth section of this list refers to such transcriptions and arrangements for the piano.


Jawi keyboard

The Jawi keyboard layout is a keyboard layout for writing the Jawi script on the Windows platform. It is based on a standard set by SIRIM (Standard Malaysia) in 2011. The layout was devised by Technical Committee in Multi-Lingual Computing at SIRIM. It was approved in 2011. The design is based on 3 principles; the layout is based on existing Arabic keyboard layout since many Jawi characters are based on Arabic characters Make minimal changes to the existing layout Add feature to support JawiAs a result, the Technical Committee agree on two designs, Normal Position and Shift Position. Apart from the SIRIM approved Jawi Keyboard for Windows, a phonetic Jawi keyboard layout that is based from macOS Jawi (QWERTY) that was written for Windows is also available. This version of the keyboard layout is different as it allows typing without the need of an Arabic Keyboard for a more natural typing on a normal QWERTY Keyboard.

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